CARDIOLOGY

You have one heart, but many heart diseases.

The main task of the cardiologist is to make an accurate diagnosis, if necessary, to conduct differential diagnosis between various diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is not a secret that some diseases of the heart and blood vessels are, at first glance, very similar in their clinical manifestations. And only a cardiologist can focus his attention on certain nuances that play a huge role in the formulation of the correct diagnosis.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide: many people die each year from CVD.

What are cardiovascular diseases?

Cardiovascular diseases are a group of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which includes:

  • hypertonic disease-arterial hypertension, hypertension;
  • ischemic heart disease – a disease of blood vessels supplying blood to the heart muscle;
  • cerebrovascular disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the blood to the brain;
  • peripheral artery disease – a disease of the blood vessels that supply blood to the hands and feet;
  • rheumatic heart disease – damage of the heart muscle and heart valves as a result of rheumatic attacks caused by streptococcal bacteria;
  • heart defect – existing deformations of the structure of the heart;
  • deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism – the formation of blood clots in the veins that can move and move to the heart and lungs.

People with CVD or at high risk of such diseases (due to the presence of one or more risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or an already developed disease) need early identification and care by counseling and, if necessary , Taking medicines.

How to determine if you are at risk of cardiovascular disease?

The SCORE Scale (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) is designed to assess the risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease within 10 years.

To assess the total risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using a calculator, you must specify the gender, age, systolic blood pressure level in the appropriate fields, whether the patient smokes and the total cholesterol level. The resulting figure represents the likelihood of a fatal outcome from a cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years, expressed as a percentage.

How to interpret the result?

Depending on the received value of risk (in percent), the patient should be referred to one of the following categories:
— Low risk – less than 5%
— High risk – 5% or more

With a high risk of cardiovascular disease, a consultation of a cardiologist is needed.

How much do you know about these heart killers: hypertension, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease?

Do you know that in Ukraine, there are about 14 million hypertensives people, and the number of strokes among Ukrainians is 13 times bigger than in Europe.

Hypertensive disease (arterial hypertension, hypertension) is a disease in which the blood pressure in the blood vessels in humans is higher than normal. The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined the upper limit of blood pressure, which can be considered normal – 140/90 mm Hg. The pressure exceeding these figures is considered to be increased. Hypertension usually takes a long time without symptoms. It is dangerous in that it accelerates the destruction of blood vessels and causes deadly complications. She is called a silent killer. At least 1/3 of people who have high blood pressure are unaware of this. Few people think that even in the absence of visible signs of hypertension daily destroys the vessels, prepares the conditions for a sudden heart attack, stroke or development of kidney failure. No wonder she is called a silent killer. All people over the age of 35 are advised to sometimes measure their blood pressure with a home tonometer or with regular check-ups with a doctor. If the blood pressure is significantly increased, there may be symptoms:Headache, flies before the eyes, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, impaired consciousness, chest pain, shortness of breath, heart rhythm disturbances. Any of these symptoms requires an urgent call to the doctor. All these are signs of a hypertensive crisis, in which the risk of a heart attack or stroke is particularly high.

To protect yourself from heart attack, stroke and kidney failure, you need to be treated for this disease every day, even when nothing hurts.

Ischemic heart disease is the destiny of every second man and every third woman, and its severe manifestation in the acute phase is a myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction is a disease that increasingly takes away human lives. It can provoke strong feelings, stress and physical stress. What is it, how and from what disease occurs? It occurs when the delivery of oxygen to the heart muscle worsens or stops. If the blood supply is broken for more than 15 minutes, the “starving” site dies. This area of ​​necrotic cells of the heart and called myocardial infarction. If an atherosclerotic plaque under the influence of the load is destroyed, and in its place a thrombus is formed – the inflow of blood is disturbed to the corresponding site of the heart. In this case, a person is very sore in the chest and can not remove it with the help of several tablets of nitroglycerin.

Angina pectoris – is a heart disease characterized by pain and discomfort in the chest. The name of the disease is associated with the symptoms of the disease, which are characterized by a feeling of constriction or contraction, a burning sensation in the heart behind the sternum, turning into pain. After the physical stress is stopped or nitrate of short action is taken, discomfort usually disappears. Very often the manifestations of the disease are associated with stuffiness or low air temperature, high blood pressure. Attacks also occur at night, especially when overeating.

Arrhythmia is the cause of every fifth stroke!
Arrhythmia-deviation from the norm of the heart sinus rhythm in any form. A natural rhythm driver under the influence of the autonomic nervous system controls the speed and rhythm of the heart. In arrhythmias, the heart rate may be increased (tachycardia) or decreased (bradycardia), and remain within the normal range. Normally, the frequency of cardiac contractions should be in the limiting values of 60-75 beats per minute.

The main clinical characteristics of arrhythmia include: dyspnea, rapid heartbeat, chest pain. In serious cases, Adams-Stokes syndrome may develop, and cardiac arrest may occur. Arrhythmia in humans can develop as a result of any heart disease or manifest without apparent cause.

What are the common symptoms of acute cardiovascular disease-infarction and stroke?

Often the underlying disease of blood vessels is asymptomatic. An infarction or stroke can be the first warning about a disease. Symptoms of a heart attack include:
— pain or discomfort in the middle of the chest;
— pain or discomfort in the arms, left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.

In addition, a person may experience difficulty in breathing or lack of air; Nausea or vomiting; Feel dizzy or faint; Cover with a cold sweat and become pale. Women are more likely to lack breath, nausea, vomiting and back and jaw pain.

The most common symptom of a stroke is a sudden weakness in the face, most often from any one side, arm or leg. Other symptoms include sudden numbness of the face, especially on any one side, arms or legs; Confusion; Difficult speech or difficulty in understanding speech; Difficulty visual perception with one or two eyes; Difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination; A severe headache without a specific cause, as well as loss of consciousness or unconsciousness. People experiencing these symptoms should immediately seek medical help.

What kind of examinations will a cardiologist appoint you?

The examination of the heart begins with a conversation with the doctor and a visual examination. The doctor will listen to your problems (if any), examine you, and then decide on which tests to assign. In addition to the blood test (which must determine its biochemistry, the amount of sugar and fats) more specific methods of research can be assigned. When diagnosing various diseases and pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, several different methods are used, which are selected in direct proportion to how the initial examination and anamnesis passed. The choice of technique lies entirely on the physician.

One of the safest, but at the same time, extremely effective options is ECG – electrocardiography.

High security of this method allows the study of ECG in any quantity without any problems.

Indications for ECG are:

  • dizziness;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • interruptions in the functioning of the heart;
  • increased heart rate;
  • chronic diseases of the respiratory system;
  • pain in the chest;
  • fainting states;
  • severe shortness of breath;
  • angina pectoris;
  • myocarditis;
  • endocarditis;

age: for women – from 45 years or for men – from 40 years.

Indications for mandatory primary EchoCG study are as follows:
— Congenital heart disease.
— Acquired heart diseases.
— Infective endocarditis.
— Acute coronary syndrome.
— Ischemic heart disease, in addition to acute coronary syndrome, when Echocardiography is necessary for a differential diagnosis and / or its results will influence the management of the patient.
— Heart failure.
— Planned cardiosurgical intervention.
— Pulmonary embolism.
— Pulmonary hypertension, unspecified.
— Heart rhythm disturbances in cases where Echocardiography is necessary for differential diagnosis and / or its results will influence the management of the patient.
— After carrying out percutaneous invasive procedures (coronary angiography, ballooning of the coronary arteries, electrophysiological examination, etc.).
— Cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericarditis.
— Syncopal states of unknown etiology.
— Suspected heart tumor.
— Screening with close relatives of people who died suddenly or had signs of heart failure at a young age.
— Screening of athletes participating in competitions.

In dynamics (again), echocardiography is recommended in the following cases:
— Evaluation of the effectiveness of drug therapy (eg, thrombus of the left atrial appendage in patients preparing for cardioversion).
— Evaluation of the effectiveness of cardiosurgical interventions.
— A sharp change / deterioration in the clinical course of the disease (for example, suspicion of rupture of the papillary muscle in acute myocardial infarction).

Necessity of monitoring:

  • sizes and function of left ventricle (cardiac insufficiency, diffuse myocarditis);
  • the severity of valvular stenosis;
  • systolic pressure gradient (aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy);
  • pulmonary hypertension (for example, a hemodynamically significant defect of the interventricular or interatrial septum, severe pulmonary hypertension, etc.).

Screening of children, people who died suddenly or had signs of heart failure at a young age (annually during the entire puberty period).

In addition to these categories of patients, ultrasound is recommended for weightlifters, divers, marathon runners to make sure that their heart can withstand heavy loads.

Echocardiography is also performed in patients who often suffer from bronchitis, sore throats, pneumonia for early detection of heart failure.

The frequency of echocardiography is determined individually depending on the severity of the lesion in the primary examination, while a repeat echocardiogram examination of patients may be appropriate for changing symptoms.

Echocardiography has no absolute contraindications, there is only a recommendation: the restriction in food intake for 2-3 hours before the test, because of the high position of the diaphragm can be obtained biased results.

Do you want to live long and fully? Do you find it difficult to understand the heart? Have you already found a cardiologist who could be entrusted with your heart? We are ready to help your heart!